Monday, 9 April 2012

He's one of the boys who has/have cheated. 應該用 "has" 還是 "have"?

答案是:應該用 "have"。

今天課堂上的幾個學生都犯了同樣的錯誤。為什麼 "have" 才是正確呢?

請先分析句子的意思: 他是其中一個作弊的男生。換言之,不止一個男生作弊,他只是當中的一個。句子中動詞的真正 subject 是代表 "boys" 的 relative pronoun "who",而不是 "he" 或 "one"。因此,動詞應該用上 "have cheated" 而不是 "has cheated"。

請參考下面的 link,看看其他類似的例子:


  1. what about the differences between: I ate earlier/ I've eaten earlier.
    I ran this morning/ I've ran this morning.
    or I did my homework already/ I've done my homework already.

    1. "I ate earlier." vs "I've eaten earlier."

      You can say "I ate earlier" when the action (of eating) clearly took place at a definite time in the past, even though this time isn't mentioned. For example:

      A: Aren't you hungry?
      B: I ate earlier. Don't you remember?

      You would probably say "I've eaten earlier" instead when the action of eating happened in the recent past and at some undefined time:

      A: Would you like something to eat?
      B: No, thank you. I've eaten earlier.

      "I ran this morning." vs "I've run this morning."

      You can say "I've run this morning" if the time at which you say that is roughly before noon. After that, "this morning" becomes a completed period in the past and you would have to say "I ran this morning" instead.

      For example:

      (at 10 a.m.)
      A: What have you done this morning?
      B: I've gone jogging this morning.

      (at 5 p.m.)
      A: What did you do this morning?
      B: I went jogging this morning.

      "I did my homework already." vs "I've done my homework already."

      This one is a little tricky. In British English, the present perfect simple is often used instead of the past simple. For example:

      In British English:
      A: Have you done your homework?
      B: I've done my homework already.

      In American English:
      A: Did you do your homework?
      B: I did my homework already.

      Despite the differences between the two varieties, we would often use the present perfect simple when we want to emphasise that our homework is done, perhaps a little sooner than expected:

      A: Will you go and do your homework now?
      B: I've done it already. (Instead of saying "I did it already.")

      And in the following scenario, we would use the past simple instead:

      A: I saw our class teacher scolding you yesterday. What happened?
      B: Well, I did my homework already (instead of saying "I've done my homework already" as it was clearly in the past) but she still scolded me for nothing. Maybe she lost her mind.